1989 China Guo Shoujing - Astronomer, Hydralic Engineer, Mathematician & Politician (1231 - 1316), 5-Yuan Silver 900 Proof Coin, 33 mm 22.22 Grs.
1989 China Guo Shoujing - Astronomer, Hydralic Engineer, Mathematician & Politician (1231 - 1316), 5-Yuan Silver 900 Proof Coin, 33 mm 22.22 Grs.

1989 China Guo Shoujing - Astronomer, Hydralic Engineer, Mathematician & Politician (1231 - 1316), 5-Yuan Silver 900 Proof Coin, 33 mm 22.22 Grs.

$75.00
1989 China Guo Shoujing - Astronomer, Hydralic Engineer, Mathematician & Politician (1231 - 1316), 5-Yuan Silver 900 Proof Coin, 33 mm 22.22 Grs.

Coin is uncirculated mint, proof-struck.
Any marks seen resides solely on the capsule.

Country.       China
Year.             1989
Value.           5-Yuan
Composition. Silver (.900)
Weight.          22.22 g
Diameter.       36.0 mm

- Guo Shoujing:-
Guo Shoujing ( 郭守敬, 1231–1316), courtesy name Ruosi (若思), was a Chinese astronomer, hydraulic engineer, mathematician, and politician who lived during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). The later Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1591–1666) was so impressed with the preserved astronomical instruments of Guo that he called him "the Tycho Brahe of China." Jamal ad-Din cooperated with him.

Guo Shoujing was a major influence in the development of science in China. The tools he invented for astronomy allowed him to calculate an accurate length for the year, which allowed Chinese culture to set up a whole new system of exact dates and times, allowing for increasingly accurate recording of history and a sense of continuity throughout the country. The calendar stabilized the Chinese culture allowing subsequent dynasties to rule more effectively. Through his work in astronomy, he was also able to more accurately establish the location of celestial bodies and the angles of the Sun relative to Earth. He invented a tool which could be used as an astrological compass, helping people find north using the stars instead of magnets.

Within the field of hydraulics, even at a young age, Guo was revolutionizing old inventions. His work on clocks, irrigation, reservoirs, and equilibrium stations within other machines allowed for a more effective or accurate result. The watches he perfected through his work in hydraulics allowed for an extremely accurate reading of the time. For irrigation, he provided hydraulics systems which distributed water equally and swiftly, which allowed communities to trade more effectively, and therefore prosper. His most memorable engineering feat is the man-made Kunming Lake in Beijing, which provided water for all of the surrounding area of Beijing and allowed for the best grain transport system in the country. His work with other such reservoirs allowed people in inner China access to water for planting, drinking, and trading. Guo's work in mathematics was regarded as the most highly knowledgeable in China for 400 years. Guo worked on spherical trigonometry, using a system of approximation to find arc lengths and angles. He stated that pi was equal to 3, leading to a complex sequence of equations which came up with an answer more accurate than the answer that would have resulted if he did the same sequence of equations, but instead having pi equal to 3.1415.

As people began to add onto his work, the authenticity of his work was questioned. Some believe that he took Middle Eastern mathematical and theoretical ideas and used them as his own, taking all the credit. However, he never left China which would have made it more difficult for him to access others' ideas. Otherwise, Guo was highly regarded throughout history, by many cultures, as a precursor of the Gregorian calendar as well as the man who perfected irrigation techniques in the new millennium. Many historians regard him as the most prominent Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician of all time.

His calendar would be used for the next 363 years, the longest period during which a calendar would be used in Chinese history. He also used mathematical functions in his work relating to spherical trigonometry, building upon the knowledge of Shen Kuo's (1031–1095) earlier work in trigonometry. It is debated amongst scholars whether or not his work in trigonometry was based entirely on the work of Shen, or whether it was partially influenced by Islamic mathematics which was largely accepted at Kublai's court. Sal Restivo asserts that Guo Shoujing's work in trigonometry was directly influenced by Shen's work. An important work in trigonometry in China would not be printed again until the collaborative efforts of Xu Guangqi and his Italian Jesuit associate Matteo Ricci in 1607, during the late Ming Dynasty.

Guo Shoujing was cited by Tang Shunzhi 唐順之 (1507–1560)[13] as an example of solid practical scholarship, anticipating the rise of the Changzhou School of Thought and spread of the "evidential learning".

Asteroid 2012 Guo Shou-Jing is named after him, as is the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope near Beijing.


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